The full form of age (AGE) is a medical abbreviation that has been used for a number of medical conditions. You might have heard about AGE but are not sure what it means. Here, you’ll learn more about AGE and how it helps diagnose various medical conditions. You can also learn more about this abbreviation by visiting the website Abbreviations Finder. Here, you can find all the definitions for AGE, as well as other medical abbreviations and terms.
AGE stands for Advanced Glycosylation End Product
AGE is the abbreviation for advanced glycation end-products, a group of heterogeneous compounds formed from the non-enzymatic glycation of free amino groups in proteins. This process is induced by endogenous hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Exogenous AGEs can be derived from diet-related sources. AGE accumulation correlates with ageing. The AGE receptor, a single transmembrane protein found in many types of human cells, is involved in the process.
AGEs are formed by a nonenzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and amino groups. The first product of this reaction is Schiff base, which then spontaneously rearranges into the Amadori product. This reaction occurs on glucose, but in higher concentrations the sugars unhook from the amino groups and undergo subsequent reactions, forming AGEs. These molecules are then transported to the bloodstream.
The AGEs accumulate in the blood of diabetics. These AGEs are similar to the fluorescent cross-linked AGEs, but they have a different structure. Instead of a heterocyclic bond, the N-H bond is replaced by a lysine residue, which causes an amino acid to be added to the molecule. As the AGEs accumulate in tissues, they can also disrupt the intestinal barrier, triggering a cellular inflammatory response.
AGEs are mainly produced by the human body, but they can be found in foods as well. Some types of meat contain high levels of AGEs, and certain cheeses are especially high in this compound. Food preparation processes such as frying or high-heat cooking increase the level of AGEs in foods. Nevertheless, human beings can process up to ten percent of the AGEs from their diets.
Elevated levels of AGEs are linked to the risk of coronary artery disease, as well as aortic stiffness. Since AGEs mimic elastin and collagen, AGE-derivatives contribute to arterial stiffening. They also promote the expression of genes associated with atherosclerosis. Additionally, AGE-modified LDL cholesterol reduces its clearance from the blood, resulting in increased LDL levels and atherosclerosis.
A number of sensitive assays are available for detecting AGEs in blood and tissues. However, these assays are not suitable for routine clinical samples, and thus must be refined. For example, the methodological approaches for detecting AGEs require reference materials, referent methods, and established analytical validation procedures. The use of standardized terminology is important for improving research on AGEs. There are currently no gold standards for detecting AGEs in human blood.
The binding of AGEs to the receptor RAGE causes several signalling pathways in the body. For instance, RAGE binds to S100 protein and activates the S100 protein. These three pathways are involved in inflammatory processes, but AGEs have also been associated with ageing and a number of age-related diseases, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, and neurodegeneration.